ICO Exit Scams

In the world of cryptocurrency and blockchain technology, Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs) have become a popular way for startups to raise capital. An ICO allows a company to sell its own digital tokens to investors, typically in exchange for established cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin or Ethereum. However, along with the legitimate opportunities, the ICO space has also seen its fair share of scams.

One of the most notorious types of fraud in this arena is the “exit scam,” where the creators of the ICO disappear with the raised funds, leaving investors with worthless tokens.

This blog post aims to educate investors on the red flags and warning signs of ICO exit scams, helping them make informed decisions and avoid falling victim to these schemes.

Understanding ICO Exit Scams

What is an ICO Exit Scam?

An ICO exit scam occurs when the creators of an ICO raise funds from investors and then abruptly disappear, taking the money with them. They often create a compelling story, a detailed whitepaper, and a promising roadmap to lure investors. Once they have accumulated a significant amount of money, they vanish, leaving investors with no recourse.

Historical Context

The phenomenon of ICO exit scams became particularly prevalent during the ICO boom of 2017-2018. During this period, the hype around blockchain and cryptocurrencies led to a surge in ICOs, many of which were poorly regulated or completely unregulated. This created a fertile ground for fraudsters to exploit unsuspecting investors.

Common Red Flags of ICO Exit Scams

To protect yourself from ICO exit scams, it’s crucial to recognize the warning signs. Here are some common red flags that can indicate a potential scam:

1. Anonymous or Inexperienced Team

Warning Sign: The team behind the ICO is either anonymous or lacks verifiable experience in the blockchain or related industries.

Why It Matters: A legitimate project will typically have a team with a proven track record. If the team members are anonymous or have no prior experience, it’s a major red flag. Reputable projects are usually transparent about their leadership and advisors, providing detailed professional backgrounds.

2. Lack of a Clear and Detailed Whitepaper

Warning Sign: The whitepaper is vague, lacks technical details, or is full of buzzwords without substantive information.

Why It Matters: A whitepaper is a critical document that outlines the project’s technology, goals, and roadmap. It should provide clear and detailed information about how the project plans to achieve its objectives. A poorly written whitepaper often indicates a lack of serious planning or an attempt to obfuscate the project’s true intentions.

3. Unrealistic Promises and Guarantees

Warning Sign: The ICO promises guaranteed returns or makes overly optimistic claims about future performance.

Why It Matters: No legitimate investment can guarantee returns. Projects that promise high returns with little to no risk are likely too good to be true. These claims are often used to entice inexperienced investors.

4. Lack of Transparency

Warning Sign: There is little to no information about the project’s progress, financials, or ongoing development.

Why It Matters: Transparency is key to building trust. Legitimate projects regularly update their community and investors with progress reports, financial statements, and other relevant information. A lack of transparency can indicate that the project is hiding something.

5. No Clear Roadmap

Warning Sign: The project lacks a detailed roadmap or the roadmap provided is unrealistic and lacks specific milestones.

Why It Matters: A roadmap outlines the project’s development stages and timelines. It should have specific, achievable milestones. An unclear or overly ambitious roadmap can indicate that the project hasn’t been properly planned or that the creators don’t intend to follow through.

6. Excessive Marketing and Hype

Warning Sign: The project relies heavily on marketing and hype, with little focus on the actual technology or development.

Why It Matters: While marketing is essential for any project, excessive hype without substantive information about the technology or development can be a sign that the project is more focused on attracting investors than on building a viable product.

7. Pressure to Invest Quickly

Warning Sign: The project uses high-pressure tactics to get investors to buy tokens quickly, often with limited-time offers or bonuses.

Why It Matters: High-pressure sales tactics are a common tactic in scams. They create a sense of urgency, making investors feel like they might miss out on a great opportunity if they don’t act fast. Legitimate projects provide ample time for investors to conduct due diligence.

Real-World Examples of ICO Exit Scams


Overview: BitConnect was a cryptocurrency lending and exchange platform that promised high returns through its lending program.

Red Flags:

  • Guaranteed Returns: BitConnect promised daily returns of up to 1%, which is unrealistic and unsustainable.
  • Lack of Transparency: There was little information about the team or the company’s operations.
  • Excessive Hype: The project relied heavily on aggressive marketing and affiliate programs.

Outcome: In January 2018, BitConnect shut down its lending and exchange platform, causing the price of its token to plummet. Investors lost millions of dollars, and the platform was subsequently labeled a Ponzi scheme by multiple authorities.


Overview: Prodeum claimed to be a blockchain project aimed at revolutionizing the produce industry.

Red Flags:

  • Anonymous Team: The team members listed on the website were fake, with stock photos and names of real people who had no connection to the project.
  • Lack of Substance: The whitepaper and project details were vague and filled with buzzwords.
  • Abrupt Disappearance: The project’s website vanished shortly after the ICO, leaving only the word “penis” on its homepage.

Outcome: Prodeum raised only a small amount of money before disappearing, but it served as a stark reminder of how easy it is for scammers to create fake ICOs.

How to Conduct Due Diligence

To protect yourself from ICO exit scams, it’s essential to conduct thorough due diligence before investing. Here are some steps you can take:

1. Verify the Team

  • Research Team Members: Look up the team members on LinkedIn and other professional networks. Verify their identities and check their professional backgrounds.
  • Check Advisors: Look for reputable advisors who have publicly endorsed the project. Contact them directly if possible to confirm their involvement.

2. Analyze the Whitepaper

  • Technical Details: Ensure the whitepaper contains detailed technical information about the project.
  • Clear Goals and Roadmap: Look for clear, achievable goals and a realistic roadmap with specific milestones.
  • Feasibility: Assess whether the project’s goals are technically and economically feasible.

3. Evaluate the Project’s Transparency

  • Regular Updates: Check if the project provides regular updates on its progress.
  • Financial Transparency: Look for financial statements or other indications of how funds are being used.
  • Community Engagement: Active engagement with the community can be a positive sign of transparency.

4. Assess the Marketing Strategy

  • Balance: Ensure that the project balances marketing efforts with substantive information about the technology and development.
  • Avoid Hype: Be wary of projects that rely heavily on hype and aggressive marketing tactics.

5. Look for Regulatory Compliance

  • Legal Disclaimers: Check for legal disclaimers and information about the project’s regulatory status.
  • Jurisdiction: Ensure the project complies with the regulations of the jurisdiction in which it operates.

6. Conduct Independent Research

  • Third-Party Reviews: Look for independent reviews and analysis of the project from reputable sources.
  • Community Feedback: Check forums and social media for feedback from other investors and community members.

Tools and Resources for Investors

Several tools and resources can help investors conduct due diligence and identify potential scams:

ICO Rating Websites

  • ICO Bench: Provides ratings and reviews of ICOs based on various criteria, including team, vision, and product.
  • ICO Drops: Lists upcoming, ongoing, and completed ICOs with detailed information and ratings.

Blockchain Explorers

  • Etherscan: Allows you to track transactions and verify the authenticity of an ICO’s smart contract on the Ethereum blockchain.
  • Blockchain.info: Similar to Etherscan, but for Bitcoin and other blockchains.

Professional Networking Sites

  • LinkedIn: Useful for verifying the identities and professional backgrounds of team members and advisors.

Community Platforms

  • Reddit: Offers community discussions and feedback on various ICOs.
  • BitcoinTalk: A popular forum where many ICOs announce their projects and engage with the community.

Legal and Regulatory Considerations

Understanding the legal and regulatory environment can also help protect you from scams. Here are some key considerations:

Jurisdictional Regulations

Different countries have varying regulations regarding ICOs. It’s important to understand the legal requirements in your jurisdiction and the jurisdiction where the ICO is based.

Compliance and Registration

Legitimate ICOs often register with regulatory bodies and comply with relevant laws. Check if the ICO is registered and if it provides clear information about its compliance with regulations.

Legal Recourse

In the event of a scam, having a clear understanding of your legal recourse can be beneficial. Some jurisdictions have stronger consumer protection laws that may provide avenues for recovering lost funds.

The Role of Community and Social Media

The community and social media play a significant role in identifying and exposing scams. Here’s how you can leverage these platforms:

Community Vigilance

Active participation in community discussions can help you stay informed about potential scams. Many scams are exposed by vigilant community members.

Social Media Signals

Follow the project’s social media channels for updates and

announcements. Be wary of projects that disable comments or block critical feedback.

Scam Reports

Many community platforms have dedicated sections for reporting scams. Keep an eye on these sections and report any suspicious activities.


Investing in ICOs can be a lucrative opportunity, but it comes with significant risks, including the potential for exit scams. By understanding the red flags and warning signs, conducting thorough due diligence, and leveraging available tools and resources, you can protect yourself from falling victim to these scams.

Final Tips for Investors

  1. Educate Yourself: Continuously educate yourself about blockchain technology, cryptocurrencies, and the ICO market.
  2. Start Small: If you’re new to ICOs, start with small investments to minimize risk.
  3. Diversify: Don’t put all your money into one ICO. Diversify your investments to spread risk.
  4. Stay Skeptical: Maintain a healthy level of skepticism and question everything.
  5. Seek Professional Advice: When in doubt, seek advice from financial professionals or legal experts.

By following these guidelines and staying informed, you can navigate the ICO landscape more safely and make better investment decisions.